Technology for dryland farming
By definition dryland farming or dryland agriculture obtains low rainfall as compared to rainfed farming. Further, it is added that dryland agriculture possessed more hostile environments than that of rainfed. Dryland farming constitutes about 72 per cent of the total cropped area of 143million hactares(Mha) in India contributing to about 42 per cent of total food production (Reedy,2001). Almost entire coarse grains and about 75per cent of oil seeds and pulses are obtained from dryland agriculture. Contrary to this, around two thirds of rice,rape seed and mustards and one third of wheat are grown in the rainfed agriculture. However, the yeeild of these crops is low in these farming systems as compared to irrigated agriculture, which can be increased by using suitable technology.
The integrated technology of dry land agriculture and rainfed agriculture developed by the scientists has shown its immense potential to meet all the needs of the farmers-food,fodder,fuel wood ,timber,fruits and,vegetables. For its success, it is necessary to create permanent assests for the farmers of dry land and rainfed agriculture. These are seven major steps for effective transfer of dry land and rainfed agriculture. These are as follows :
Management of land.
Creation of pond or tanks to store run off loss, is the need of the hour as the stored water can be used for irrigation.
Digging of percolation tanks on community basis is another need.
Giving more attention to animal husbandry is also an essentiality.
Developing dry land horticulture/olericulture is also necessary. Introducing improved agriculture implements is another affecting dryland farming.
Encouraging subsidiary occupations like beekeeping, sericulture, mushroom cultivation etc,to increase income. It may be: India is called rural country. It is because nearly 700 million people dwell in more then 60,00,000 village spanning over 150 million households. Thus India is called “Rural India”.” Out of 700millions people living in the villages, about 600 million individuals are engaged in farming and more then 80% of them belong to the small and marginal farmers categories (Swaminathan 2005). Owing to imperfect adaptation to local environments, in sufficient provision of nutrients and water and incomplete control of pests, diseases and weeds. The present average yeild to main farming system in India is 40% of what can be achieved even with the current available technology. However,there is considerable scope for further investment in land improvement, through drainage, terracing, control of acidification and salinization/sodiumization in areas where these have not been commenced so far. India therefore,requires to identify projects which needs marginal investment for completion so as to develop an integrated input supply system. It will help to produce about 325 million tones of food grains to feed an expected population of about 1.5 billion to 2025.
A number of check dams, earthen dams have been built to check soil erosion and conserve water,several wells ponds and bowalies or baulies have also been constructed/ upgarde to make the water situation better both for drinking, irrigation purposes. Hybride seeds are now being produced. Likewise in horticulture sector orchards of citrus fruits,mangoes,litchies,were raised on waste lands. After completing survey of 82 watersheds of doda ,district during 2001-2002 (Gupta and Sharma, 2003), suitable species of fuel wood ,fodder tree along with engineering measures were recommended. Small water storage tanks were suggested to be dugout in way paths so as to entrap both. Soil and water. Stall feeding to be encouraged in the grazing area, and adoption of silvi-pastoral system of agroforestry were the suitable measure recommended in the area to check the overgrazing of the pastures and to control soil erosion in the eroded areas. To prevent landslides suitable spurs coupled with retaining walls were advised to be raised in landslip or land slide prone area. Silvi- horticulture, silvi-pastoral, silviagro, were too advocated to be used in the wastes lands.